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Test Bank For Health Psychology An Introduction To Behavior and Health 8th Edition By Linda Brannon

  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1133593070
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1133593072
  • Author : by Linda Brannon

Original price was: $65.00.Current price is: $35.00.

SKU:TB0001465

Test Bank For Health Psychology An Introduction To Behavior and Health 8th Edition By Linda Brannon

CHAPTER 11

Living with Chronic Illness Lecture Outline

I. The Impact of Chronic Illness Chronic illnesses present a major problem, affecting not only the patient but also friends and family members. The diagnosis of a chronic disease may be conceptualized as a crisis or as a transition in the person’s life. Adjustment to the illness often changes the way patients see themselves, produces financial strain, and disrupts established patterns of personal and social behaviors. A. Impact on the Patient Chronically ill patients must cope not only with the symptoms of their illness but also manage the stress of treatment, live as normal a life as possible, and face the possibility of death. Dealing with the health care system is often a negative factor for people with chronic illness, not only because of frequent contacts but also because health care providers typically concentrate on the physical aspects of the illness and fail to provide help in coping with the long-term disruption of the patient’s life. Support groups can be valuable for people with chronic illness, providing information as well as emotional support. Patients with chronic illness must cope with the loss of health and the possibility of death, but many people manage to find some positive aspect in this process. B. Impact on the Family Chronic illness requires adaptation for families as well as for individuals. For families with chronically ill children, parents must adapt to treatment and face the loss of their children’s health. For adults, a chronically ill family member presents the need for caregiving, which alters relationships with family members. Feelings of grief and loss are common, and family members benefit from finding positive ways to deal with these emotions. II. Living with Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative disease of the brain and a major source of impairment among older people. Two forms of the disease exist: one that typically occurs before age 60 and the other that usually begins after age 60. The early-onset variety, which is caused by a known genetic defect, is uncommon. The more common late-onset type seems to be related to apolipoprotein ϵ, a protein involved in cholesterol metabolism; the ϵ4 form is a risk factor for the development of the tangles of neurons that are the basis for Alzheimer’s disease. Environmental factors also contribute to the risk of developing this disease. Indeed, the behavioral risks for Alzheimer’s disease are similar to those for cardiovascular disease and cancer, and the behaviors that offer protection are also similar. In the United States, as many as 50% of the people over age 85 exhibit symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. The disease is difficult to diagnosis because many of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s overlap with symptoms of other illnesses. These symptoms include memory loss, language problems, agitation and irritability, sleep disorders, suspiciousness and paranoia, incontinence, sexual disorders, wandering, depression, and loss of ability to perform routine self-care. A. Helping the Patient Alzheimer’s disease is presently incurable, and drugs have only limited ability to slow the progression of the disease. Symptoms of the disease can be managed by changing those situations in the patients’ environment that prompt undesirable behavior. In addition, several psychological interventions have been used to enhance memory and to help patients cope with depression and problems of disorientation. B. Helping the Family The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are particularly distressing to family members. Emotional outbursts, suspiciousness, anger, and agitation by a previously gentle, loving person can baffle family members and disrupt normal family functioning. As the disease progresses, care is required because the Alzheimer’s patient may wander away from home at any time of the day or night, become disoriented and upset, and lose the ability to perform routine self care. People who care for Alzheimer’s patients must have the time, energy, and skills to perform appropriate care, and they must also care for themselves. Caring for Alzheimer’s patients is particularly stressful, and support groups and other psychosocial interventions often help caregivers cope with the strain of living with an Alzheimer’s patient. III. Adjusting to Diabetes Type 1 diabetes was called juvenile-onset diabetes and Type 2 diabetes was referred to as adult-onset diabetes, but with increased obesity among American youth, many children as young as 8 or 9 years old are now developing Type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes. Thus, the terms insulin-dependent or Type 1 and noninsulin-dependent or Type 2 are the current terminology. Both types of diabetes mellitus require changes in lifestyle, including the frequent monitoring of blood glucose and strict compliance to treatment regimen. (See Table 11.2 for characteristics of both types of diabetes.) A. The Physiology of Diabetes Diabetes mellitus is a disorder caused by an insulin deficiency. The islet cells of the pancreas produce glucagon, which stimulates the release of glucose, and insulin, which allows cells to use glucose. If the islet cells do not produce adequate insulin, excessive sugar accumulates in the blood and urine. Patients’ inability to regulate blood sugar often causes diabetics to develop other health problems such as cardiovascular disease, retina damage, and kidney diseases. If unregulated, diabetes may cause blindness, coma, and even death. B. The Impact of Diabetes The diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes affects both the child and the parents. The child is labeled as sick or different, and he or she faces a lifetime of coping with a chronic disease. Insulin injections and careful monitoring of diet are necessary. Parents must be constantly vigilant to ensure that their child complies with a difficult treatment regimen.

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