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Test Bank For Health Services Research Methods 3rd Edition By Leiyu Shi – Answer Key

  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1133949673
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-113394967
  • Author : by Leiyu Shi - Answer Key



Test Bank For Health Services Research Methods 3rd Edition By Leiyu Shi – Answer Key

Chapter 6
Answer Key

1. What are the purposes that qualitative research serves?
Qualitative research serves four major purposes. It can be used as an exploratory study method and is particularly oriented toward exploratory discovery and inductive logic. It can also be used as a complement to large-scale systematic research, and is often conducted first to provide leads and feedback for more structured or large-scale quantitative research that follows, or later to help confirm and elucidate information to add depth, substance, and meaning to survey and experimental results.

It can also be used as a method for specific research purposes, and is more appropriate than other methods for certain objects, topics, problem, and situations, such as the study of complete events, phenomena, or programs; developmental or transitional programs and events; attitudes, feelings, motivations, behaviors, and factors associated with the changing processes; complex events with interrelated phenomena; dynamic or rapidly changing situations; relationships between research subjects and settings; and processes, or how things happen, rather than outcomes, or what happens.

Qualitative research can also be used as an alternative when methodological problems and ethical concerns preclude the use of other methods. When subjects are unable or unwilling to participate in a formal survey or experiment, qualitative research may be used as a viable alternative. It is often a preferred alternative when the control and manipulation necessary for an experiment are not ethically feasible.

2. Draw distinctions among the various terms used to denote qualitative research.
The term qualitative research entails observations and analyses that are generally less numerically measurable, or less quantifiable, than typical methods used in quantitative research. Several other terms are synonymous with qualitative research in describing this methodological approach. The term field research is often used because researchers observe, describe, and analyze events happening in the natural social setting—that is, the field. Qualitative approaches emphasize the necessity of going to the field and getting close to the people and situations being studied so that researchers are personally aware of the realities and details of daily life. However, quantitative research can also take place in the field.

Another oft-used term is observational research or participant observation. This term is used because observation is a primary method of qualitative research and is used for the purpose of seeing the world from the subject’s perspective. The word observation is not used to specify qualitative research, though, because the term is basic to all scientific inquiry rather than limited to qualitative research. However, qualitative observation differs from other forms of scientific observation in two important ways. First, qualitative observation emphasizes direct observation rather than indirect observation. Second, qualitative observation takes place in the natural setting, rather than in a contrived situation or the laboratory.

Case study is another term often associated with qualitative research, because qualitative research typically examines a single social setting—a case—such as an organization, community, or association. However, while case studies may use qualitative approaches, they may also employ quantitative methods such as surveys and quasi-experiments. In addition, not all qualitative studies are concerned with the detailed description and analysis of study settings.

Qualitative studies may also be termed ethnographic, which refers to the description of a culture after extensive field research. The primary method of ethnographers is participant observation, but qualitative research is not limited to the study of culture. Researchers have to address the limitations of ethnographic studies in influencing public policy, but many additional topics pertain to qualitative research.

Qualitative research is also related to phenomenological inquiry, focusing on the experience of a phenomenon by particular people. In subject matter, phenomenological inquiry seeks to understand what people experience and how they perceive the world. In research methodology, phenomenological inquiry believes the best way for researchers to know what another person experiences is through participant observation. The qualitative methodology requires the researcher to have both sensitivity and sympathy, unlike in a strictly procedural or step-by-step researcher program.

Another commonly used term, heuristics, is a form of phenomenological inquiry that focuses on intense human experiences from the point of view of researchers to develop a sense of connectedness between researchers and subjects. Qualitative research encompasses both the research subject and the method of phenomenological inquiry, but is much broader in both areas. In addition to individuals, qualitative research may focus on a group, organization, community, or social phenomenon or entity. In addition to participant observation, it may also include focused interviews, case studies, or other methods suitable for qualitative fieldwork.

The field of symbolic interactionism also contributes to qualitative observation and analysis. In this practice, meaning is negotiated under ongoing interaction. The concept of objects is integral to interactionism, and participants who interact with others understand their world by interpreting how others act toward objects. Its unique emphasis on a common set of symbols and their interpretations by those who use them is important to qualitative research to explain human interactions and behaviors.





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