Test Bank For Introduction to Chemistry 4th Edition by Rich Bauer
- Chapter 02 Test Bank: Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table
1. Which of the following were defined as the elements by the early Greeks?
A. earth, wind, and fire
B. earth, air, fire, and water
C. carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
D. sun, sand, and water
E. none of these
2. Which of the following statements regarding atoms and atomic theory is incorrect?
A. “Atomos” is a Greek word meaning unbreakable.
B. Democritus, a Greek philosopher, believed that matter could be broken down into infinitely small pieces.
C. The ancient Greeks believed that all matter is made of four elements: earth, air, fire, and water.
D. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
E. By the 1700s, all chemists believed that elements were made of atoms.
3. Which of the following statements regarding atoms and atomic theory is incorrect?
A. Antoine Lavoisier discovered in the late 1700s that matter is not gained or lost in a chemical reaction.
B. Joseph Proust showed that when elements combine to form new substances, they do so in specific mass ratios.
C. According to the law of multiple proportions, when water forms, the mass ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is variable.
D. John Dalton’s atomic theory disagreed with the ancient Greek philosophers’ ideas about matter.
E. The Greek philosophers did not conduct experiments to support their ideas.
4. The figure shows a molecular-level diagram of the chemical reaction between hydrogen and nitrogen to form ammonia. What is wrong with this diagram?
A. The products contain more nitrogen atoms than the reactants.
B. The products contain more hydrogen atoms than the reactants.
C. The number of reactant molecules should equal the number of product molecules.
D. The products should contain some unreacted hydrogen.
E. The product ammonia molecules should have only two hydrogen atoms attached to the nitrogen.
5. Which of the following elements is not one of the three most abundant elements in the human body?
6. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A. The human body is made up of about 99% carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
B. Essential minerals come from the foods we eat and drink.
C. Most of the essential minerals in our diet are classified as metals on the periodic table.
D. Minerals are necessary for the growth and production of bones, teeth, blood, etc.
E. Magnesium is a building block for hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in our blood.
7. Which of the following observations does not relate specifically to the law of definite proportions?
A. Pure water is composed of the elements oxygen and hydrogen in a mass ratio of 8 to 1.
B. Any sample of a given compound always contains the same proportions by mass of the component elements.
C. The mass of the products of a chemical reaction is equal to the mass of the starting materials of the reaction.
D. When a metal reacts with oxygen, the oxygen content of the products is fixed at one or two values.
E. When water is broken down into its elements by electrolysis, elemental oxygen, and hydrogen are formed in an 8 to 1 mass ratio.
8. Which of the following is not part of Dalton’s atomic theory?
A. All matter is composed of small indivisible particles called atoms.
B. All atoms of a given element have identical mass and chemical properties.
C. Atoms of one element can be changed to atoms of another element in a chemical reaction.
D. Atoms combine in whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds.
E. Chemical reactions involve a rearrangement of the atoms in the starting materials.
9. Which of the following statements regarding atomic theory is incorrect?
A. John Dalton’s experimental results led to the law of conservation of mass.
B. Antoine Lavoisier’s experiments showed that the mass of the products of a chemical reaction equals the mass of the reacting substances.
C. When wood is burned, the ashes weigh less than the original wood, but this is not a violation of the law of conservation of matter.
D. Dalton’s atomic theory says that a chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms into one or more different chemical substances.
E. Joseph Proust’s findings regarding the reactions between metals and oxygen led to the law of definite proportions.
10. Dalton’s atomic theory consisted of all the following postulates except
A. Elements are composed of indivisible particles called atoms.
B. Atoms of different elements have different properties.
C. The volumes of gases that combine are in small whole-number ratios.
D. Atoms combine in fixed ratios of whole numbers when they form compounds.
E. In chemical reactions, atoms are not created or destroyed.
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