Test Bank For Introduction to Criminology Theories Methods and Criminal Behavior 9th Edition By Hagan
1. While crime was rising in the 1960s in the United States, crime was decreasing in Japan. This observation is significant because:
a. It highlighted the inaccuracy of our statistics on crime, since it is common knowledge that crime rates are consistent across nations.
b. It proved beyond a reasonable doubt that American society is particularly prone to criminality.
*c. It discredited the assumption that modernization inevitably produces increased criminality.
d. It provided support for the long-held notion that modernization inevitably leads to an increase in criminality.
2. Crime rates are difficult to compare cross-nationally due to:
a. Different definitions of crime
b. Quality of data
c. Ideological differences
*d. All of the above
3. According to the International Crime Victimization Survey, the rate of violent crime in the United States is:
a. Lower than the rates in both Canada and Western Europe
b. Lower than the rate in Canada, but higher than the rate in Western Europe
c. Higher than the rate in Canada, but lower than the rate in Western Europe
*d. Higher than the rates in both Canada and Western Europe
4. Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between age and crime?
*a. Both property and violent crime rates peak early in life, and then decline significantly with age.
b. Property crime rates peak early in life, with violent crimes peaking around middle-age.
c. Violent crime rates peak early in life, with property crimes peaking around middle-age.
d. Both property and violent crime rates are low among the young, and tend to increase with age.
5. Which of the following crimes tends to increase with age?
*d. White-collar crime
6. The “age/crime” debate refers to the debate surrounding:
a. Whether there is a relationship between age and crime
*b. Whether “maturing out” of crime is a phenomenon true of all offenders and all types of crime
c. The cause of a recent spike in violent crime committed by the elderly
d. The age at which most individuals first become involved in criminal behavior
7. Of all demographic variables, which is the best predictor of criminality?
d. Socioeconomic status
8. The gap between male and female crime rates is _______ in modernized societies.
b. remaining stable
d. at its widest
9. In stating that most theories of crime and delinquency have been androcentric, it is meant that they have been:
c. Too reliant on a singular research methodology
d. Too focused on regional variations among crime rates
10. African Americans compose approximately 12% of the population in the United States. Which of the following is true regarding African Americans and contemporary arrest rates?
a. African Americans account for 5% of all arrests
*b. African Americans account for 27% of all arrests
c. African Americans account for 65% of all arrests
d. African Americans account for more than 90% of all arrests
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